Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of microplastics in marine organisms
Michaela E. Miller ,Mark Hamann,Frederieke J. Kroon
Published: October 16, 2020 doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0240792
Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of MPs, and associated chemical additives, in marine environments are often inferred in the literature on marine MP contamination. This review demonstrates that MP contamination occurs across all five main trophic levels in a general marine food web. Moreover, bioaccumulation of MPs occurs in numerous individual marine species across four main trophic levels representing consumers. The relative importance of different exposure pathways contributing to MP bioaccumulation, however, is not necessarily clear and needs further examination. While chemical additives have been detected in a few marine species collected in situ, results from laboratory exposures indicate that environmental exposure to chemical additives per se affects bioaccumulation more strongly than exposure to chemical additives associated with MPs. In contrast to MP bioaccumulation, this meta-analysis of in situ studies does not support biomagnification of MPs from lower to higher trophic levels in a general marine food web, even though trophic transfer of MPs has been reported in a few laboratory studies. Indeed, MP bioaccumulation appears to be more strongly linked with feeding strategies, rather than trophic levels, of marine species. Finally, bioaccumulation and biomagnification are two critical concepts used in ecological risk assessments to determine the extent of pollutant transport within food webs. This review highlights the need for targeted field-based and experimental studies to elucidate the possible routes of uptake of MPs (and associated chemicals) and provide confidence in the use of these endpoints in the MP literature.
ECOSWF signs on to request to EPA
from ManaSota-88, Inc. a 501.c3 Public Health and Environmental Organization
HEALTH RISKS OF PHOSPHOGYPSUM
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) needs determine the long-term health effects of exposure to toxic and hazardous substances associated with former phosphate mining and processing sites, and phosphogypsum (gyp) stacks.
EPA has stated that as many as 40,000 people living on former phosphate mining lands in central Florida are being exposed to dangerous levels of radiation from contaminated indoor air in central Florida homes.
21 former phosphate mining sites may be eligible as Superfund candidates for EPA's National Priorities List.
A comprehensive health risk analysis on all Florida phosphate reclaimed mine sites is needed. We are concerned that too little is being done or is being done to slowly to address a serious health problem.
Further delay in responding to the problems of elevated levels of radiation and chemical contamination associated with former phosphate sites and gyp stacks is unacceptable. Such a delay can only be viewed as a deliberate attempt by EPA to circumvent their duties to protect human health and safeguard the environment.
The phosphate industry has had more than 70 years to address their problem of disposal of phosphate related wastes. More than 1 billion tons of cancer causing phosphogypsum wastes have been dumped on Florida. Over 30 million tons of waste is annually being produced by the industry. We are no closer to finding a solution to the long-term safe disposal of radioactive phosphogypsum than we were 70 years ago.
The phosphate industries radiation pollution problem has become Florida’s problem.
Accordingly, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency must:
1. Conduct a comprehensive health risk analysis on all Florida gyp stacks and phosphate reclaimed mine sites. 14 reclaimed phosphate lands are currently in use by the public as recreational areas throughout the State. Additional testing is needed to determine the extent and source of pollution at these reclaimed mine sites.
2. Conduct inorganic and radiochemical surface water and fish tissue sampling in an on-going monitoring process at all former phosphate sites currently accessible to the public for fishing.
Several endangered or threatened species, as well as anyone consuming fish caught at the former phosphate mines, may be adversely impacted by the contaminated sites.
3. Conduct an ecological risk assessment for all gyp stacks and former phosphate mine sites.
Radium-226 and radium-228 have been identified at levels above the EPA cancer risk screening concentration standards on-site at the former phosphate mining facilities such as the Tenoroc Fish Management Area (TFMA).
Land mined for phosphate exhibits higher radioactivity at the surface than it did before mining. Phosphate mining exposes radioactive materials and can increase surface and ground water radiation levels. The elevated levels of radiation pose a considerable threat to human health and the environment.
4. Conduct measurements for the purpose of determining employee exposure to toxic and hazardous substances, and the potential for long-term health effects of working on-site at gyp stacks and former phosphate mine sites. EPA should determine if these sites are in compliance with the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and OSHA Regulations (Standards - 29 CFR).
ManaSota-88 does not believe the phosphate industry should be permitted to externalize the costs of their phosphogypsum waste disposal problem at the public’s expense. The cost is too high.